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We were unfortunately unable to download the information for this disease from OMIM.

Prevalence of clinical parameters (%)

List of symptoms

Symptom/sign Organ system Percent affected Pubmed id Added on(yyyy-mm-dd)
Graying of hair integumentary 99 % 7484729 2012-01-18
Muscle weakness skeletal 93 % 17520024 2012-01-16
Cerebral atrophy nervous 83 % 7237008 2012-01-17
Facial Wrinkles integumentary 83 % 7484729 2012-01-18
Hypertension circulatory 73 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Hypercholesterolemia circulatory 64 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Telangiectasia circulatory 64 % 16009576 2014-04-10
Decreased serum IGF-1 circulatory 59 % 16510863 2016-10-04
Congestive heart failure circulatory 49 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Alopecia integumentary 49 % 7484729 2012-01-18
Cancer multi 42 % 17227898 2012-01-17
Varicose veins circulatory 36 % 16009576 2014-04-10
Cerebellar atrophy nervous 35 % 7198196 2012-01-15
Visual acuity decrease nervous 34 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Hearing loss nervous 31 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Kyphosis skeletal 31 % 15450042 2013-12-11
Hypercholesterolemia circulatory 28 % 17047009 2012-05-04
Weight loss multi 24 % 23452127 2013-10-25
Vertigo nervous 22 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Urinary tract infection urinary 22 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Psychiatric symptom nervous 21 % 17047009 2012-05-04
Arthritis skeletal 19 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Obesity multi 19 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Cardiac arrhythmia circulatory 17 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Diabetes mellitus type 2 endocrine 17 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Edema integumentary 16 % 16009576 2014-04-10
Ischaemic heart disease circulatory 15 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Angina pectoris circulatory 15 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Anxiety nervous 14 % 17047009 2012-05-04
Myocardial infarction circulatory 13 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Dementia nervous 12 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Osteoporosis skeletal 12 % 11199195 2012-01-18
Diabetes mellitus endocrine 12 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Anemia circulatory 11 % 15238427 2012-05-04
Cholelithiasis digestive 9 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Stroke nervous 9 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Arteriosclerosis circulatory 8 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Hypertriglyceridemia circulatory 8 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Hypertension circulatory 7 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Fracture skeletal 7 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Anosmia nervous 7 % 16170073 2013-11-04
Cataract nervous 6 % 6496237 2012-01-15
Atrial fibrillation circulatory 5 % 23740599 2014-02-11
Neuropathy nervous 4 % 9743318 2012-01-17
Seizures nervous 4 % 17047009 2012-05-04
Parkinsonism nervous 3 % 17047009 2012-05-04

List of references:

Gray hair, baldness, and wrinkles in relation to myocardial infarction: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.
P Schnohr, P Lange, J Nyboe, M Appleyard, G Jensen,

To investigate a possible relation between aging signs such as graying of the hair, baldness, and facial wrinkling and myocardial infarction (MI), we analyzed data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study. During the 12-year follow-up, 750 cases of first-time MI were observed. After statistical adjustment for possible confounders, we found a correlation between graying of the hair, facial wrinkling, and frontoparietal baldness and crown-top baldness and MI in men. For example, the relative risk was 1.4 (95% CI, 0.9 to 2.0) for men with moderately gray hair compared with men with no gray hair and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.8) for men with completely gray hair (p < 0.001). With regard to gray hair, a similar although weaker and not statistically significant trend was seen in women. We conclude that, in addition to established coronary risk factors, aging signs like graying of the hair, male baldness, and facial wrinkling indicate an additional risk of MI.

American heart journal - Nov 1995

Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle.
Simon Melov, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Kenneth Beckman, Krysta Felkey, Alan Hubbard,

Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25) and younger (N = 26) adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001) such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.

PloS one - May 2007

Age-related brain atrophy and mental deterioration--a study with computed tomography.
M Ito, J Hatazawa, H Yamaura, T Matsuzawa,

The relation of brain atrophy measured with computed tomography (CT) to mental deterioration on living people was studied. A newly improved technique for quantitative measurement of brain atrophy was developed. The pixels inside the head slices were divided into three parts; brain skull, and cerebrospinal fluid according to their CT number. The volume of brain, CSF, and cranial cavity were calculated by counting the number of pixels of each tissue. Results from 130 normal brains showed that the CSF volume was constant at about 16 ml through 20--39 years old. After 40 years the mean CSF volume increased drastically and reached 71 ml in the seventies. The volume of the brain was standardized for comparison between different-sized heads (brain volume index: BVI). The mean BVI decreased with statistical significance after 40 years of age. Mental function of these persons were evaluated using Hasegawa's dementia rating scale for the elderly. Progression of brain atrophy accompanied loss of mental activities (p less than 0.01).

The British journal of radiology - May 1981

Prevalence of cardiovascular disorders and risk factors in two 75-year-old birth cohorts examined in 1976-1977 and 2005-2006.
Xinyue Zhi, Erik Joas, Margda Waern, Svante Östling, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Ingmar Skoog,

The number of older people are increasing worldwide, and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of death in western societies. This study examines birth cohort differences in cardiovascular disorders and risk factors in Swedish elderly.

Aging clinical and experimental research - Aug 2013

Chronic venous insufficiency in Italy: the 24-cities cohort study.
R Chiesa, E M Marone, C Limoni, M Volonté, E Schaefer, O Petrini,

To assess the relationship between sex, age, geographical region, lower limb symptoms and the presence of trunk varicose veins and venous incompetence.

European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery - Oct 2005

Decline in insulin-like growth factor-I levels across adult life span in two large population studies.
Marcello Maggio, Alessandro Ble, Gian Paolo Ceda, E Jeffrey Metter,

The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences - Feb 2006

A health survey of the very aged in Tampere, Finland.
M Haavisto, U Geiger, K Mattila, S Rajala,

The population aged 85 years or over (n = 674) living in Tampere, Finland, was surveyed in 1977-78. Altogether, 561 persons (83%)--99 men and 462 women--were examined. The study comprised questionnaire, medical examination, laboratory tests, ECG and chest X-ray examination. Of the subjects, 24% were hospitalized, 22% were in old people's homes and 54% lived at home. The most common symptoms were aches and pains (24%), vertigo (22%), defective vision (15%) and defective hearing (12%). Congestive heart failure (49%), dementia or confusional state (28%) and urinary tract infection (22%) were the most common diseases.

Age and ageing - Sep 1984

Cancer statistics, trends, and multiple primary cancer analyses from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program.
Matthew J Hayat, Nadia Howlader, Marsha E Reichman, Brenda K Edwards,

An overview of cancer statistics and trends for selected cancers and all sites combined are given based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Median age at diagnosis for all sites combined shows a 2-year increase from 1974 through 1978 to 1999 through 2003. Changes in cancer incidence rates from 1975 through 2003 are summarized by annual percent change for time periods determined by joinpoint regression analysis. After initial stability (1975-1979), incidence rates in women for all cancer sites combined increased from 1979 through 2003, although the rate of increase has recently slowed. For men, initial increases in all cancer sites combined (1975-1992) are followed by decreasing incidence rates (1992-1995) and stable trends from 1995 through 2003. Female thyroid cancer shows continued increasing incidence rates from 1981 through 2003. Blacks have the highest incidence and mortality rates for men and women for all cancer sites combined. Based on 2001 through 2003 data, the likelihood of developing cancer during one's lifetime is approximately one in two for men and one in three for women. Five-year relative survival for all stages combined (1996-2002) ranges from 16% for lung to 100% for prostate cancer patients. Cancer survival varies by stage of disease and race, with lower survival in blacks compared with whites. The risk of developing subsequent multiple primary cancers varies from 1% for an initial liver primary diagnosis to 16% for initial bladder cancer primaries. The impact on the future U.S. cancer burden is estimated based on the growing and aging U.S. population. The number of new cancer patients is expected to more than double from 1.36 million in 2000 to almost 3.0 million in 2050.

The oncologist - Jan 2007

Cerebellar atrophy: relationship to aging and cerebral atrophy.
W C Koller, S L Glatt, J H Fox, A W Kaszniak, R S Wilson, M S Huckman,

We studied the incidence of computed tomography evidence of cerebellar atrophy in 20 elderly patients with dementia, 20 age-matched controls, and 40 younger normal subjects. Cerebellar vermian atrophy was present in 6 of 20 demented patients, 7 of 20 elderly controls, and 1 of 40 younger controls. There was no other atrophy of infratentorial structures except for occasional enlargement of the cisterna magna and cerebellopontine angle cisterns. Vermian atrophy did not correlate with cerebral atrophy (enlargement of either lateral ventricles or cortical sulci). None of these patients had clinical signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Therefore, atrophy of the cerebellar vermis may occur selectively with aging, without atrophy of the cerebral cortex, and without clinical manifestations.

Neurology - Nov 1981

Hyperkyphotic posture predicts mortality in older community-dwelling men and women: a prospective study.
Deborah M Kado, Mei-Hua Huang, Arun S Karlamangla, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Gail A Greendale,

To determine the association between hyperkyphotic posture and rate of mortality and cause-specific mortality in older persons.

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society - Oct 2004

Prevalence of chronic disease in the elderly based on a national pharmacy claims database.
Corina Naughton, Kathleen Bennett, John Feely,

Age and ageing - Nov 2006

Body mass index, change in body mass index, and survival in old and very old persons.
Anna K Dahl, Elizabeth B Fauth, Marie Ernsth-Bravell, Linda B Hassing, Nilam Ram, Denis Gerstof,

To examine how body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with mortality in old (70-79) and very old (≥80) individuals.

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society - Apr 2013

Estimation of the prevalence of low bone density in Canadian women and men using a population-specific DXA reference standard: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos).
A Tenenhouse, L Joseph, N Kreiger, S Poliquin, T M Murray, L Blondeau, C Berger, D A Hanley, J C Prior, ,

The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) is a prospective cohort study which will measure the incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures, and the effect of putative risk factors, in a random sample of 10,061 women and men aged > or = 25 years recruited in approximately equal numbers in nine centers across Canada. In this paper we report the results of studies to establish peak bone mass (PBM) which would be appropriate reference data for use in Canada. These reference data are used to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in Canadian women and men aged > or = 50 years. Participants were recruited via randomly selected household telephone listings. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic QDR 1000 or 2000 or Lunar DPX densitometers. BMD results for lumbar spine and femoral neck were converted to a Hologic base. BMD of the lumbar spine in 578 women and 467 men was constant to age 39 years giving a PBM of 1.042 +/- 0.121 g/cm2 for women and 1.058 +/- 0.127 g/cm2 for men. BMD at the femoral neck declined from age 29 years. The mean femoral neck BMD between 25 and 29 years was taken as PBM and was found to be 0.857 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for women and 0.910 +/- 0.125 g/cm2 for men. Prevalence of osteoporosis, as defined by WHO criteria, in Canadian women aged > or = 50 years was 12.1% at the lumbar spine and 7.9% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 15.8%. In men it was 2.9% at the lumbar spine and 4.8% at the femoral neck with a combined prevalence of 6.6%.

Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA - 2000

Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia.
Jack M Guralnik, Richard S Eisenstaedt, Luigi Ferrucci, Harvey G Klein, Richard C Woodman,

Clinicians frequently identify anemia in their older patients, but national data on the prevalence and causes of anemia in this population in the United States have been unavailable. Data presented here are from the noninstitutionalized US population assessed in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria; causes of anemia included iron, folate, and B(12) deficiencies, renal insufficiency, anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI), formerly termed anemia of chronic disease, and unexplained anemia (UA). ACI by definition required normal iron stores with low circulating iron (less than 60 microg/dL). After age 50 years, anemia prevalence rates rose rapidly, to a rate greater than 20% at age 85 and older. Overall, 11.0% of men and 10.2% of women 65 years and older were anemic. Of older persons with anemia, evidence of nutrient deficiency was present in one third, ACI or chronic renal disease or both was present in one third, and UA was present in one third. Most occurrences of anemia were mild; 2.8% of women and 1.6% of men had hemoglobin levels lower than 110 g/L (11 g/dL). Therefore, anemia is common, albeit not severe, in the older population, and a substantial proportion of anemia is of indeterminate cause. The impact of anemia on quality of life, recovery from illness, and functional abilities must be further investigated in older persons.

Blood - Oct 2004

Anosmia is very common in the Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease.
J M Olichney, C Murphy, C R Hofstetter, K Foster, L A Hansen, L J Thal, R Katzman,

Olfactory abnormalities are reported in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Anosmia appears to be common in dementia with Lewy bodies but not in pure Alzheimer's disease.

Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry - Oct 2005

Chronic symmetric symptomatic polyneuropathy in the elderly: a field screening investigation of risk factors for polyneuropathy in two Italian communities. Italian General Practitioner Study Group (IGPST).
E Beghi, M L Monticelli,

A total of 4191 patients 55 years and older were screened for clinical features and risk factors of polyneuropathy by 27 general practitioners (GPs) in two areas of Italy (Varese and San Giovanni Rotondo). Polyneuropathy was diagnosed in the presence of two or more symptoms associated with bilateral impairment of at least two of the following: strength, sensation, tendon reflexes. A risk factor for polyneuropathy (associated disease or neurotoxic agent) was recorded based on its presence in the GP's records, the presence of specific treatments, or an affirmative answer to the interviewer's question. The prevalence of polyneuropathy among patients with no recognized exposure to diseases or neurotoxic agents was 1.6% (Varese 1.6%; San Giovanni Rotondo 1.8%). The corresponding values were 11.8% (Varese 11.8%; San Giovanni Rotondo 11.9%) for patients with one risk factor, and 17.3% (Varese 19.2%; San Giovanni Rotondo 13.0%) for patients with two risk factors. Combining the two populations, the prevalence of polyneuropathy was highest in diabetics (18.3%), followed by patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism (12.5%), non-alcoholic liver disease (10.9%), and tumor (7.1%). Diabetes was the commonest independent risk factor for polyneuropathy (odds ratio 11.3), followed by alcoholism (7.4), non-alcoholic liver disease (4.9), and tumor (2.6).

Journal of clinical epidemiology - Aug 1998